Could be anyone but Craig Wright

Satoshi Nakamoto the Pseudonymous Creator of Bitcoin

What we know about Satoshi, and more about who they aren't.

I’m not interested in knowing who Satoshi is… but it’s still fun to explore the theories and learn about some of the could-be’s.

  • The Complete Satoshi - Nakamoto Institute - Between 2008 and 2012, a pseudonymous programmer (or programmers) going by the name Satoshi Nakamoto shared with the world a brilliant vision and the code to build it.
    • Emails - It all began here.
    • Forum Posts - Where an idea flourished.
    • Code - The vision distilled.
    • Quotes - Indexed wisdom from the quotable Satoshi.

Dan Hedl (@danheld)

1/ Satoshi’s Vision™ is a silly endeavor, as it doesn’t matter what it was, we are where we are now. However, those pushing the “Bitcoin was first made for payments” narrative insist on cherry-picking sentences from the white paper and forum posts to champion the…

“I think this is the first time we’re trying a decentralized, non-trust-based system” - Satoshi (find source)

Most Cited Satoshi Nakamoto Publications

Last updated November 4th, 2017. Publications must mention the creator of Bitcoin, Satoshi Nakamoto (pseudonym). “Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system”. S Nakamoto. 2008. acad…


  • Welcome to the new Bitcoin forum! - satoshi - November 22, 2009
  • View the profile of satoshi

    Date Registered: November 19, 2009, 07:12:39 PM Last Active: December 13, 2010, 04:45:41 PM

  • grubles (@notgrubles)

    Satoshi commenting in a thread about a “hypothetical system” where the network doesn’t know the values and lineage of the transactions, hiding Bitcoin addresses, and “group signatures”.

  • Not a suggestion - Satoshi

    As some might have noticed, one of the things that bugs me about bitcoin is that the entire history of transactions is completely public. I totally understand the benefits of how this simplifies things and makes it easy for everyone to prove coins are valid.

    So this is not a suggestion for a change to bitcoin. Rather it is a question about what could be possible, and what couldn’t be possible.

    The general question is, could the block list be/have been implemented in a way that didn’t store the full transactions in the list? Specifically, perhaps it would be possible to store only hashes of the in-points, out-points in the block list. These would be time stamped (notarized) in the blocklist exactly as is being done now.

Satoshi’s Bitcoin

  • According to BitMEX Research, Satoshi Nakamoto may have mined fewer bitcoins than previously thought.

    Based on five-year-old research, Bitcoin enthusiasts and critics alike have often held that Satoshi Nakamoto originally mined some 1,000,000 bitcoin in the early days of the network. New numbers from BitMEX Research, however, demonstrates this number could be off by 300,000-400,000 total bitcoin.

  • Does Satoshi have a million bitcoin?

    Abstract: We examine the extent to which one miner dominated Bitcoin in 2009. We review Sergio Demian Lerner’s 2013 analysis, where he discovered that the increase in the ExtraNonce value in the block can potentially be used to link different blocks to the same miner. We build on his analysis and conclude that although the evidence is far less robust than many assume, there is reasonable evidence that a single dominant miner in 2009 could have generated around 700,000 bitcoin. Although our analysis itself is weak and there is no perfect way of approaching this problem.

  • 16.7 Satoshi’s hashrate

    “Bitcoin mining pool, network and exchange analysis”

  • The Well Deserved Fortune of Satoshi Nakamoto, Bitcoin creator, Vi…

    I won’t discuss anything in this post. I’m tired of discussing technical things with people with skewed opinions and monetary interest. I’ve talked enough in the Bitcointalk forum…

  • Who Will Steal Satoshi’s Bitcoins?

    I woke up in the middle of the night so I fired up Twitter and I encountered two well-known cryptographers’ conversation about quantum…

Who is Satoshi?

Chris Burneky — Cryptoassets 2018

“Based on historical estimates, Satoshi likely started formalizing the Bitcoin concept sometime in late 2006 and started coding it around May 2007. In this same time span, many regulators began to believe that the U.S. housing market was overextended and likely in for a rough ride. 22 It’s hard to believe someone with such breadth of knowledge as Satoshi would be working in isolation from what he was witnessing in global financial markets.

  • Who is Satoshi Nakamoto ? Suspects, frauds and conspiracies on bitcointalk Satoshi Nakamoto is a talented cipher and coder. Wrote the whitepaper on bitcoin “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System” and published it on the cypherpunks mailing list in October 2008 Developed the code for bitcoin and founded He used an e-mail address and a web site that is untraceable. In 2009 and 2010, he wrote hundreds of posts in flawless English. He invited other software developers to help him improve the code, and corresponded with them, He never revealed any personal details. Stefan Thomas, a Swiss coder and active community member, graphed the time stamps for each of Nakamoto’s bitcoin forum posts and found: He made almost no posts between the hours of 5 a.m. and 11 a.m. Greenwich Mean Time. In April, 2011, he sent a note to a developer saying that he had “moved on to other things.” He has not been heard from since.

His birthday is said to be on April 5, 1975 according to this post. (But it is likely that he didn’t select his real birth-date)

  • A Week of Satoshi Pt. 2: A Faceless Response to the Power of Centralization Many have claimed to be Satoshi Nakamoto publicly only to have their proclamations refuted. Conversely, others have outright denied any involvement with Bitcoin after being portrayed as the brains behind the cryptocurrency that started it all.
  • Stylometric Analysis: Satoshi Nakamoto - Michael Chon - Fall 2017 - Georgetown University Natural Language Processing tools were applied to the Satoshi Nakamoto’s Bitcoin paper to compare it to numerous cryptocurrency-related papers in an attempt to identify the true identity of the unknown Satoshi Nakamoto. There are two parts to the paper; the first part is stylometric analysis on the linguistic features generated and n-grams of each document in the corpus consisting of the relevant literature listed on Satoshi Nakamoto Institute and using machine learning models of the linguistic features to predict an author/authors on the Satoshi Nakamoto’s Bitcoin paper and his personal email texts. The second part is semantic similarity analysis where the content of each document in the corpus is compared in terms of semantic similarity number using the built-in functions in spaCy and gensim. The results from the two parts suggested which author/authors in the corpus are linguistically and semantically similar to Satoshi Nakamoto.
  • 𝓡𝓪𝓶𝓹𝓪𝓰𝓮 🦍 (@Thrillmex) NSA: HOW TO MAKE A MINT: THE CRYPTOGRAPHY OF ANONYMOUS ELECTRONIC CASH References two articles written by “Tatsuaki Okamoto” from 1991. Titled; An Efficient Divisible Electronic Cash Scheme Universal Electronic Cash Is this the OG Satoshi Nakamoto?
  • N.Y Times: Study Suggests Link Between Dread Pirate Roberts and Satoshi Nakamoto Posted by: DeepDotWeb November 25, 2013 Two Israeli computer scientists say they may have uncovered a puzzling financial link between Ross William Ulbricht, the recently arrested operator of the Internet black market known as the Silk Road, and the secretive inventor of bitcoin, the anonymous online currency, used to make Silk Road purchases.

Dorit Ron, a computer scientist at the Weizmann Institute, and Adi Shamir, a pioneering cryptographer who is a member of the applied mathematics faculty at the Institute, will publish a paper Sunday exploring how the 29-year-old Mr. Ulbricht, who was arrested by the Federal Bureau of Investigation in October and has been charged with a murder-for-hire scheme and narcotics-trafficking, acquired and protected the estimated millions he made in commissions operating Silk Road. The researchers say Silk Road, at the time of Mr. Ulbricht’s arrest, had sales of $1.2 billion, generating $80 million in commissions. A huge run-up in the value of bitcoin in the last month has exponentially increased those amounts.

  • How the NSA identified Satoshi Nakamoto The ‘creator’ of Bitcoin, Satoshi Nakamoto, is the world’s most elusive billionaire (worth more than $7B as of November 2017). Very few…
  • Obi_Obvi ⚡️👽⚡️ (@ObiObvi) Paul Solotshi Calder Le Roux, a criminal mastermind, is the creator of encryption software E4M & TrueCrypt (the cryptography encryption software Satoshi likely used to lock up his 1 million $BTC)… Holy sh*t! Talk about a plot twist. Very interesting.
  • Deadal Nix (@deadalnix) Some people seems to adulate Satoshi, think he can do nothing wrong and his word are to be interpreted as gospel. While I share Satoshi’s plan to create peer to peer digital cash, I do think it is important that we think for ourselves. Here are some errors Satoshi made:

Nick Szabo

Neil Stephenson

If We Told You Neal Stephenson Invented Bitcoin, Would You Be Surp…

In his new book, Fall, the author of Snow Crash, Cryptonomicon, and The Diamond Age, looks to the digital afterlife, and beyond.

Phil Zimmerman

  • Vlad Costea (@TheVladCostea)

    Something that baffles me in this space is the lack of Phil Zimmermann appreciation/references. He did a lot for privacy and pioneered some ideological principles that get paraphrased by everyone who advocates for Bitcoin or Monero.

    Seriously, he’s a worthy Satoshi candidate.

  • Vlad Costea (@TheVladCostea)

    Anybody who thinks they can flesh out a protocol in secret and then deploy it, full-blown and working, is in for a world of hurt” - @NickSzabo4 in 1993, probably referring to Filip Zimmermann, but simultaneously predicting the coming of Satoshi and Nicolas van Saberha…

12.8.4. Nick Szabo: Other Digital Money Systems: Digital Cash and Net Commerce: - Cyphernomicon 12.8

“Internet commercialization in itself is a huge issue full of pitfall and opportunity: Mom & Pop BBS’s, commercial MUDs, data banks, for-profit pirate and porn boards, etc. are springing up everywhere like weeds, opening a vast array of both needs of privacy and ways to abuse privacy. Remailers, digital cash, etc. won’t become part of this Internet commerce way of life unless they are deployed soon, theoretical flaws and all, instead of waiting until The Perfect System comes along. Crypto- anarchy in the real world will be messy, “nature red in tooth and claw”, not all nice and clean like it says in the math books. Most of thedebugging will be done not in any ivory tower, but by the bankruptcy of businesses who violate their customer’s privacy, the confiscation of BBS operators who stray outside the laws of some jurisdication and screw up their privacy arrangements, etc. Anybody who thinks they can flesh out a protocol in secret and then deploy it, full-blown and working, is in for a world of hurt. For those who get their Pretty Good systems out there and used, there is vast potential for business growth – think of the $trillions confiscated every year by governments around the world, for example.” [Nick Szabo, 1993-8-23]

Craig Wright (definitely not)

DRP - Ross Ulbricht

  • Study Suggests Link Between Dread Pirate Roberts and Satoshi Nakamoto Two Israeli scientists have written a paper that suggests a link between Ross William Ulbricht, who was recently arrested as the operator of the Internet black market Silk Road, and the anonymous inventor of bitcoin.
  • Researchers Retract Claim Of Link Between Alleged Silk Road Mastermind And Founder Of Bitcoin

    Two Israeli mathematicians are retracting their claim that there was a link between Bitcoin founder Satoshi Nakamoto and the man accused of running illicit online marketplace The Silk Road.

    “We no longer believe that the very early Founder account we identified in the full bitcoin transaction graph belongs to Satoshi Nakamoto,” Dorit Ron and Adi Shamir of the Weizmann Institute said in a statement. “We will revise our paper accordingly.”

  • How Did Dread Pirate Roberts Acquire and Protect His Bitcoin Wealth? - Dorit Ron and Adi Shamir

    Abstract. The Bitcoin scheme is one of the most popular and talked about alternative payment schemes. One of the most active parts of the Bitcoin ecosystem was the Silk Road marketplace, in which highly illegal substances and services were traded. It was run by a person who called himself Dread Pirate Roberts (DPR), whose bitcoin holdings are estimated to be worth hundreds of millions of dollars at today’s exchange rate. On October 1-st 2013, the FBI arrested a 29 year old person named Ross William Ulbricht, claiming that he is DPR, and seizing a small fraction of his bitcoin wealth. In this paper we use the publicly available record to trace the evolution of his holdings in order to find how he acquired and how he tried to hide them from the authorities. In particular, we trace the amounts he received and the amounts he transferred out of his accounts, and show that all his Silk Road commissions from the months of May, June and September 2013, along with numerous other amounts, were not seized by the FBI. This analysis demonstrates the power of data mining techniques in analyzing large payment systems, and especially publicly available transaction graphs of the type provided by the Bitcoin scheme.



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